Crossword
Word Search
Civet
Civet
African Civet
African Civet

CIVET


Scientic Name
Civettictis civetta

Morphology
Civets have long bodies,short-legs,short broad neck,pointed muzzle,small rounded ears, and a bushy tail.The length is from about 39 to 51 inches(100 to 130 cm) and they weigh 24-33 pounds(11-15 kg).The dorsal base color of the fur varies from white to creamy yellow to reddish. The stripes, spots, and blotches which cover the animal are deep brown to black in coloration.Horizontal lines are prominent on the hind limbs, spots are normally present on the midsection of the animal and fade anteriorly into vertical stripes above the forelimbs. The tail of the African Civets are black with a few white bands and the paws are completely black. The head, neck and ears are clearly marked. A black band stretches across its eyes like that of a raccoon and the coloration of its neck is referred to as a double collar because of the two black neck bands.Following the spine of the animal extending from the neck to the base of the tail is the erectile dorsal crest. The hairs of the erectile crest are longer than those of the rest of the pelage. If the African Civet becomes threatened the erectile crest raises up which makes the animal look larger than it actually is. This is a mechanism for predatory defense.

Habitat/Ecosystem
The civet's habitat are the savannahs,woodland,and mountain biomes of South and Central Africa,Madagascar,Iberian Peninsula,Southern China, and Southeast Asia. Civets also live in sub-Saharan Africa and the lower two thirds of the continent.They also live ranging from Senegal to Somalia,south to Namibia,and eastern South Africa.They are found near the river system of arid regions,but will not live in arid regions.Civets are often found in burrows abonded by other animals,tall grasses,or thickets.Above all they live in tropical rainforests.

Adaptation
Civet is a stocky animal with a long body and appears short-legged for its size although its hind limbs are noticeably larger and more powerful.It has a short broad neck, a pointed muzzle, small rounded ears, small eyes, and a long bushy tail.The African Civet has five didgets per manus in which the first toe is slightly set back from the others.The African Civet has long, curved, semi-retractile claws. Its feet are compact and unsuitable for digging or climbing and the soles of the feet are hairless. African Civets have a modified synapsid skull which is heavy-built and is the longest of any viverrid.The zygomatic arch is robust and provides a large area for attachment of the masseter muscle. The skull also has a well developed saggital crest which provides a large area for attachment of the temporalis muscle. This musculature and the African Civet’s strong mandible give it a powerful bite oriented to its omnivorous diet. African Civet’s have a total of forty teeth.Like many mammals the African Civet has two types of fur; the under fur and guard hairs. The under fur is the bottom layer of fur and is responsible for insulation. Guard hairs are longer hairs which protrude out past the under fur and act as a form of protection. The pelage of the African Civet is coarse and wiry.

Human use?
The civet produces a musk (also called civet)from the perineal gland highly valued as a fragrance and stabilizing agent for perfume.The perineal gland secretes a white or yellow waxy substance.The perinaeal gland has been the basic ingredient for many perfumes for hundreds of years.It is still being used today although on the decline since the creation of synthetic musk in 1998.Civets have been kept in captivity and milked for their civet which is diluted into perfumes.It is harvested by either killing the animal and removing the glands,or scrapping the glands of a live animal located around the anus which is a painful proccess.They can secrete three to four grams of civet per week and can be sold for just under five hundred dollars per kilogram.Kopi luwak or civet coffee is coffee made from coffee cherries that have been eaten by a civet then passed through its digestive tract.A civet eats the berries for their fleshy pulp.In its stomach,proteolytic enzymes seep into the beans,making shorter peptides and more free amino acids.It then passes through a civet's intestines the beans are then defecated,having kept their shape.After gathering,thorough washing,sun drying,light roasting and brewing,the beans yeild an aromatic coffee with much less bitterness,noted as the most expensive coffee in the world.Kopi luwak sells for between $100 and $600 per pound.It is sold by weight mainly in Japan and the United States and served in Southeast Asian coffeehouses by the cup.Kopi luwak is produced mainly on the islands of Sumatra,Java,Bali,Sulawesi in the Indonesian Archipelago,and the Philippines(where the product is called motit coffee in the Cordillera and kape alamid in Tagalog areas) and also in East Timor(where it is called kafe-laku).Sumatra is the world's largest regional producer of kopi luwaki.Weasal coffee is a loose English translation of its name ca phe Chon in Vietnam,where popular,chemically simulated versions are also produced.Kopi luwak is a name for many specific cultivars and blends of arabica,robusta,liberica,excelsa or other beans eaten by civets,hence the taste can vary greatly.

2 more facts
SARS virus(severe acute respiratory syndrome) which had a significant outbreak in April in 2003 had been traced back to a particular species, the Masked Palm Civet.Many people hunt the Masked Palm Civet for its meat which many people believed have introduced the SARS virus to humans.A hypothesis now appears to be that the virus was contracted in some other animal.The most likely original host species are bats closely related to the Chinese horseshoe-nosed bats,which then infected the Masked Palm Civet.The African Palm Civet (also known as the Two-spotted Palm Civet) is a small mammal,with short legs,small ears,a body resembling a cat,and a long lithe tail as long as its body.Its habitat is in the forests of eastern Africa where it inhabits trees.The animal is solitary and nocturnal.Although resembling other civet species it has been suggested that the African Palm Civet is genetically distinct, and diverged from other civets before the cats did although this suggestion is not universally accepted.

Genus
The Masked Palm Civet resembles other civets.The civet's pelage is orange-brown to gray.The feet are black.The Masked Palm Civet lives in tropical rainforest.This species of civet spreads across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.It ranges from Northern India to Southeast Asia and China.It is also found on islands such as Borneo,Sumatra,Taiwan,and the Andaman and Nicobar chains.It was brought to Japan in the 20th century.The Masked Palm Civet is a nocturnal solitary predator,which stays in trees.During the day,it sleeps in the treetops.The Masked Palm Civet is an omnivore that eats small vertebrates like squirrels,birds,insects,and fruit.The Masked Palm Civet was thought to be the source of the SARS disease,but was then found out to have caught the disease from bats.In Hong Kong,it is a protected species under Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Cap 170.
Masked Palm Civet
Masked Palm Civet

The Asian Palm Civet is a cat-sized mammal native to South-east Asia,South India,and southern China.Its long body is covered in greyish hair with black feet,ears,and a muzzle.It has three rows of black rows on its body.It doesn't have rings on its tail like other civet species.The Asian Palm Civet is a nocturnal omnivore.In most of Sri Lanka,civets are considered a nuisance since they litter on ceilings and attics of households,and make loud noises fighting or moving around.Asian Palm Civets are usually active around 6:00p.m. to 4:00a.m.,being less active on nights when the moon is brightest.The oil extracted from small pieces of the meat kept in linseed oil in a closed earthen pot and regularly sunned is used indigenously as a cure for scabies.
Asian Palm Civet
Asian Palm Civet